ARTICLES

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND LAW

The Place and Development of Artificial Intelligence in Law

Human beings have tried to carry forward the technology continuously and perform various missions in the best way. Although many countries have succeeded in establishing the technological infrastructure, what will bring states forward is to reduce manpower by producing artificial intelligence, the golden era of the technological age.

Technology is coming up with a new development day by day. However, although these developments take place in the field of Law, which is a positive science, the lawyers are concerned about the protection of personal data; sometimes it makes people curious in terms of the shrinkage of the business field in the people working in this sector. The New York-based company, ‘law Geex,’ has adopted a principle that marking the beginning of change by combining law with technology. With the artificial intelligence it has developed, Law Geex has set up automation to analyze contracts and provided its customers with a great opportunity.

According to the researches, after having coded the principles, laws and legal process of the American contract law system to the artificial intelligence they had undergone several months of training process, they installed thousands of contract samples and provided artificial intelligence to develop with the self-established system through machine learning and deep learning methods. As a result of this coding and learning, artificial intelligence controls the contract you have installed on behalf of the customers, detects the situations in favor and disadvantage of the customers and the existing legal gaps and corrects errors.

In the research, which was decided by the founders of the company(Noory Bechor ve Ilan Admon) in a competition to show the whole world, the success rates of human and artificial intelligence were compared. A total of 20 senior contract law attorneys from Goldman Sachs and Cisco, Alston and Bird, K&L Gates law firms competed with Law Geex's artificial intelligence. The NDA, which is a form of confidentiality agreement, has been awarded in five American legal systems, both for lawyers and for artificial intelligence. The result of the study, which is composed of 153 different paragraphs, is under the guidance of professors from Stanford University, Duke University Law School and the University of Southern California and under the independent arbitration of experienced lawyer Christopher Ray. The result is surprising, as the result of 5 different conventions of 153 paragraphs, under the independent peer review of experienced lawyer Christopher Ray, under the supervision of professors from Stanford University, Duke University Law School and the University of Southern California.

As a result, the fastest lawyer finished the job in 51 minutes; the slowest one finished in 156 minutes. The most successful lawyer achieved a success rate of 94% with an error rate of 6%; the most unsuccessful one remained at 67% success rate. The average success rate of all lawyers is 85%. In the face of all these results, artificial intelligence examined the given tasks in 26 seconds and with 94% success rate.

This success rate was calculated by taking three criteria together. The first is “false negatives”, ie the number of issues that are overlooked; the second is itives false positives ”, ie the number of misidentified, incorrectly detected issues; the third is true positives ”, which is the number of items corrected correctly. According to the Mann – Whitney U Test method, artificial intelligence was found to be 0.9932 more accurate than the average of human lawyers, and finally, it is also stated that the probability of “chance” occurrence of the results in this study is less than 0.7%.

Importance of Artificial Intelligence in Law

According to the objective results of the research, artificial intelligence, which is the success of technology and human beings in the field of law, is one of the most important developments in the field of law in the twenty-first century and has made a great progress in replacing the people working in this sector. The success rate of the artificial intelligence system designed to be used in the field of law is undeniable and will be used and demanded by many law offices and companies to minimize human error and help people who work in a very short time.

On the other hand, the review of the contract for lawyers and law firms providing contract services constitutes a large part of the daily work of lawyers. Thanks to this technology, lawyers will be able to complete the same job in a much shorter period of time and spend the rest of their time on other legal investigations and business, clients or existing hearings.

The Future of Artificial Intelligence in Law

It is clear that the artificial intelligence developed today is not only used in the production of guns, machines or robots but also in the field of law which has its own method, and this field will both relax and expand the future of the profession range. I believe that in the near future, artificial intelligence with an ethical understanding will be produced. However, in order to be a jurist, it is not enough to know the systematic of the legislation, but also to have the competencies such as interpreting the abstract norms according to concrete events and filling the gaps in law and law by having the customary and customary law of the society. Most importantly, the judge uses his discretion when necessary; artificial intelligence will not succeed.

On the other hand, as the use of artificial intelligence increases, the real issue will be the problem of taxation as a result of replacing people working in the field of law. First, the issue of taxing artificial intelligence and robots was brought up by the suggestion of Microsoft founder Bill Gates. In 2017, the European Parliament approved a report granting robots “electronic person” status in preparation for rapidly advancing artificial intelligence and robot technologies and granting them rights under Asimov laws. The inclusion of artificial intelligence in the concept of electronic person also means that robots will have obligations as well as rights. One of these obligations will be the tax liability.

Recently, Saudi Arabia granted citizenship to the robot Sophia. Since Sophia is accepted as a ‘’person’’ by the state and the subject of the tax is a person, therefore Sophia must pay tax.

As a result, the main issue that will be discussed in the coming years for the future of artificial intelligence will be the acceptability of the legal status of artificial intelligence as an ‘’electronic person’’.

Yapay Zeka ve Hukuk

Artificial Intelligence and Law

Av. M. Burak KÜÇÜKİSLAMOĞLU

Atıf YILMAZ